For thousands of years, all over the world, bread has been one of the bases of human nutrition. Let’s take a look at the best of the Peninsula
Basic food yes, but its transformations know no end. Each country and each region has different types. Sometimes very distant from each other, others differ only for a few small differences. Italy boasts an ancient tradition that has been recognized several times. White, well cooked, with more crust or softer, soft or crunchy, salty or shaman, the bread never leaves unsatisfied, there is something for every taste. In search of the most popular, region by region (strictly in alphabetical order), knowing already (no offense, dear readers) that the risk of skipping some, given the immense vastness of the culinary offer, is around the corner.
Abruzzo: the greatest representative of the territory is perhaps the casareccio bread, lodging shaped, at least a kilo, but we can also find the Cappelli bread, which takes its name from the ancient flour called by Senator Cappelli. Basilicata: we choose to mention breads from the two provinces of Potenza and Matera. Among the best known is the bread of Matera, with its classic shape and the black bread made with rye flour, barley and spelt. Calabria: here too the list is remarkable. We emphasize those more known as Cutro’s bread, made with durum and soft wheat and semi-spherical shape. Then we find the pitta made with soft wheat and lard: in the past it was considered less valuable than bread because it was used to verify the optimal temperature of the wood oven and then actually produce the bread. Campania: in the city of Naples and in several provinces the bread of Camaldoli called “rude” bread (because poor, eaten by farmers) is very common . Of ancient origin, it takes its name from the hill of Camaldoli, an area to the north-west of the city of Naples. Baked in a wood-fired oven, one shape can reach up to four kilos in weight. Its characteristics are the high breadcrumb and the crust rather thick and crispy. Emilia-Romagna: this region immediately rings us the bell with the piadina and the multiple fillings with which we can taste it. Composed of a thin focaccia, the historical tradition wants it to be cooked on a terracotta disc. In more than half of the provinces of the region we also find the crescenta or crescentina modenese also called tigella (from the name of tigelle, the terracotta discs 15 cm with which it was cooked). Friuli Venezia-Giulia: it is common, in the province of Trieste, the biga servolana, produced with golden crust and crunchy, as the result of the work of pancogole or women who baked in their own district Servola. While in Gemona del Friuli we find Sorc’s bread (in dialect it indicates the mixture of corn with which it is produced). We also find it in sweet form during the Christmas period. Lazio: in this region the influences over the course of history have been remarkable. The most typical is the homemade bread of Genzano IGP which takes its name from the town of Lazio. It differs for its huge size ( we are speaking at least of a 2.5 kilos bread); dark crust of about 3 mm and ivory-colored crumb. Liguria: here stands out the Ligurian or Genoese focaccia, seasoned with extra virgin olive oil and coarse salt. It is a flat bread, its height not exceeding 2 cm, perfect as an accompaniment to cold cuts or, as usual here, for breakfast. Lombardy: the michetta, typical bread from Milan, is widespread in almost all Lombardy, even if it is found less and less for the difficulty of working. This bread has been present since 1700 and was purely consumed by workers. It has a shape similar to another bread spread throughout Italy, the most famous rosette. Marche: probably cousin of the piadina romagnola, the crescia present in the Marche knows different variations from zone to zone. Its irregular shape is similar to the pizza and it lends itself to various condiments but usually it is realized with the lard. Molise: taralli, friselle and casareccio are typical of the region which is flanked (in dialect) sc’usc’, a donut made of soft wheat with olive oil and rosemary. Piedmont: how not to put the Turin breadsticks at the top of the list. Born at the end of 1600 by a baker who made them for King Vittorio Amedeo II because it did not digest the crumb. Famous not only in Italy but also in the rest of the world. Puglia: a long list of delicacies marks his region. Starting from the focaccia from Bari, high and soft with tomatoes and olives, the puccia from Lecce and the Salento area stuffed with poor and seasonal ingredients, without neglecting the barley or wheat friselle, to be soaked in water before consumption. Sardinia: shaped like a thin and crunchy disc, carasau bread is now widespread throughout Italy. It keeps for a long time and it is suitable for different processes and condiments. Other bread used on the island is the so-called cocoi a pitzus, a product traditionally decorated and made with durum wheat semolina. Sicily: widespread throughout Sicily the black bread of Castelvetrano is produced with wholemeal flour and it is appreciated throughout the whole Peninsula. There is also the cucuzzata, stuffed with onions, olives, chilli, cherry tomatoes and zucchini and the Scuddrireddra, biscuit bread with aroma of cinnamon and orange. Tuscany: more or less stuffed focaccia. From the Cascio Crisciolette with corn flour, wheat, bacon and cheese to the Marocca di Casola, with chestnut and wheat flour. Trentino-Alto Adige: the tastes are excellent while the names are less pronounced for those who are not local. We can find the integral lodging schwarzer Weggen, the hard rye bread or schüttelbrot, the Tyrolean loaf or dorf tiroler or the palabirabrot, the peasant bread with pears. Umbria: the pan nociato also called pan caciato is omnipresent in the region. It is a small savory sandwich with pepper, walnuts and pecorino cheese. Dough leavened with water and flour to which are added nuts and gradually the other ingredients, to be combined with a glass of red wine. Valle d’Aosta: the pan ner or rye bread is dark, used in the German-speaking and northern regions and kneaded with rye flour because it is more resistant to the cold climates of those regions. Veneto: it changes several times its name but the croissant bread remains widespread throughout the Veneto region. It starts from the same base but then shows some variant: if produced with white flour type 0 it is called “Banana”, “Mantovana”, “Bibanesi”, “Ciopa vicentina” or “Montasù” depending on the production area.